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Turbocharger Repair

  

Turbochargers and Twin Turbochargers

A “Turbocharger” is simply a gas-pressure turbine drive connected to a centrifugal air compressor, with the turbo vane and compressor impeller mounted on a shared rotating center shaft. In a turbocharged engine, hot pressurized exhaust is directed to a turbine drive typically mounted on the engines exhaust manifold, the pressure of the exiting exhaust spins the turbine drive on its way out of the exhaust manifold. The spinning pressure vane spins the air compressor which in turn creates “boost pressure”. Compressed air is measured in pounds per square inch, also known as “pounds of boost,” typically the compressed air is piped through an inner-cooler, then to the intake manifold of the engine.

The desired benefit of compressing the engines intake air is so you may add more fuel to the intake charge, the more air you can stuff into the combustion chamber the more fuel you add to maintain optimum fuel/air ratio for maximum horsepower. One major drawback of compressing air is that it heats up due to increased molecular friction during the compression process, as a result the hotter air temperatures will cause the engine to produce less horsepower.

To remedy this, you have to cool the compressed air by running it through an air cooler(inter-cooler) before it enters the combustion chamber. The “inter-cooler” is usually mounted in the lower front of the car in front of the radiator for maximum cooling efficiency.

In certain cases some people choose to employ a “twin turbo system,” the main reason for this is to reduce “turbo lag” and still provide good high end boost pressure. Lag occurs at low engine RPMs when your exhaust manifold pressure is too low and not producing enough pressure to spin the air compressor fast enough to make optimum boost.

There are two types of twin turbo systems, “Parallel and sequential,” the more common “parallel” systems employs 2 smaller diameter turbo-chargers of equal flow capacity always running at the same time, with one attached to the exhaust manifold on each bank of cylinders, more commonly used on V-style engines. Two small turbos requires less pressure and time to “spool up”(reach optimum speed/pressure) while still producing the high airflow volume and drastically reducing lag time. The other type is sequential, this system although less common also employs 2 turbochargers, only in this case one has a larger flow capacity than the other. The smaller primary turbo is first to spool up, after the smaller one spools up, it will build system pressure which will cause the secondary(large diameter) to spool up as well.

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16/10/2011 - Posted by | Uncategorized | , , , , , ,

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